Spain Travel Guide

Spain Hotels

Spain Travel Destination
Alicante, Spain
Avila, Spain
Baeza, Spain
Barcelona, Spain
Bilbao, Spain
Burgos, Spain
Cadiz, Spain
Cardona, Spain
Castellon, Spain
Cordoba, Spain
Gandia, Spain
Gijon, Spain
Granada, Spain
Ibiza, Spain
Jerez, Spain
Lacoruna, Spain
Las Palmas, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Malaga, Spain
Marbella, Spain
Oviedo, Spain
Palma, Spain
Pamplona, Spain
Playa, Spain
Salamanca, Spain
San Sebastian, Spain
Santander, Spain
Santiago, Spain
Segovia, Spain
Seville, Spain
Sitges, Spain
Toledo, Spain
Torrem, Spain
Valencia, Spain

Spain Tourism:
Madrid Attractions
Barcelona Attractions
Toledo Attractions
Valencia Attractions
Granada Attractions
Seville Attractions
San Sebastian Attractions
Balearic Attractions
Bilbao Attractions

Spain World Heritage Sites
Murcia Major Attractions
Granada Heritage Sites

Cordoba Heritage Sites

Seville Heritage Sites

Úbeda & Baeza Heritage Sites
Aragon Heritage Sites

Galicia Heritage Sites

Cantabria Heritage Sites

Asturias Heritage Sites
Ibiza Heritage Sites

Basque Country Heritage Sites

Canary Islands Heritage Sites

Toledo Heritage Sites
Castilla La Mancha Heritage Sites

Castile & Leon Heritage Sites

Catalonia Heritage Sites

Extremadura Heritage Sites
La Rioja Heritage Sites

Madrid Heritage Sites


Spain Directory & Spain Travel Information

About Spain
Spain Geography

Spain Climate

Spain History
Prehistory and Pre-Roman Peoples

Roman Empire and the

Germanic Kingdoms

Muslim Iberia

Fall of Muslim Rule and Unification
Imperial Spain

Napoleonic Rule and Its Consequences

Spanish-American War
20th Century of Spain

21st Century of Spain

Spain Politics
Spain Constitution

Spain Government

Spain Administrative Divisions

Foreign Relations of Spain

Spain Economy
Spain Demographics

Immigration to Spain

People / Languages of Spain

Spain Religions

Spain Culture
Spain Schools

Literature of Spain

Real Academia Española

Art of Spain

Cinema in Spain
Spain Architecture

Spain Music

Cuisines in Spain

Sports in Spain

Spain Holidays


Vacation Trips

Switzerland Holiday Vacation Trips offers travel tips and information for top travel places and best destinations. We feature links, resources and large selection of budget airlines, chartered planes, sea cruises, ferries, travel agencies, land transports and attractions including beaches, medical tourism, retirement homes, historical and pilgrimage tours.


Spain Muslims Iberia

In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered (711-718) by Muslim armies from North Africa. These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Islamic Empire.[note 10] Only a number of areas in the north of the Iberian Peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion and they were the starters of the Reconquista. These areas roughly corresponding to modern Asturias, Cantabria, Navarre and northern Aragon.

Under Islam, Christians and Jews were recognised as "peoples of the book", and were free to practice their religion, but faced a number of mandatory discriminations and penalties as dhimmis. Conversion to Islam proceeded at a steadily increasing pace. Following the mass conversions in the 10th and 11th centuries it is believed that Muslims came to outnumber Christians in the remaining Muslim controlled areas. The muladies comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century.

The Muslim community in the Iberian peninsula was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East. Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia, and in the mountainous region of Granada.

Córdoba, the capital of the caliphate, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city of medieval western Europe. Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Muslim and Jewish scholars played an important part in reviving and expanding classical Greek learning in Western Europe. The Romanized cultures of the Iberian peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, thus giving the region a distinctive culture. Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners, and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to a remarkable expansion of agriculture.

However, by the 11th century, Muslim holdings had fractured into rival Taifa kingdoms, allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories and consolidate their positions. The arrival of the North African Muslim ruling sects of the Almoravids and the Almohads restored unity upon Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, but ultimately, after some successes in invading the north, proved unable to resist the increasing military strength of the Christian states.


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Spain Travel Destination
Alicante Spain - Avila Spain - Baeza Spain - Barcelona Spain - Bilbao Spain - Burgos Spain - Cadiz Spain - Cardona Spain
Castellon Spain
- Cordoba Spain - Gandia Spain - Gijon Spain - Granada Spain - Ibiza Spain - Jerez Spain
Lacoruna Spain
- Las Palmas Spain - Madrid Spain - Malaga Spain - Marbella Spain - Oviedo Spain - Palma Spain
Pamplona Spain
- Playa Spain - Salamanca Spain - San Sebastian Spain - Santander Spain - Santiago Spain - Segovia Spain
Seville Spain
- Sitges Spain - Toledo Spain - Torrem Spain - Valencia Spain

Spain Travel Informations and Spain Travel Guide
About Spain - Spain Geography - Spain Climate
Spain History - Prehistory and Pre-Roman Peoples - Roman Empire and the - Germanic Kingdoms - Muslim Iberia
Fall of Muslim Rule and Unification - Imperial Spain - Napoleonic Rule and Its Consequences
Spanish-American War - 20th Century of Spain - 21st Century of Spain
Spain Politics - Spain Constitution - Spain Government - Spain Administrative Divisions - Foreign Relations of Spain
Spain Economy - Spain Demographics - Immigration to Spain - People / Languages of Spain - Spain Religions
Spain Culture - Spain Schools - Literature of Spain - Real Academia Española - Art of Spain
Cinema in Spain - Spain Architecture - Spain Music - Cuisines in Spain - Sports in Spain - Spain Holidays

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