Spain Travel Guide

Spain Hotels

Spain Travel Destination
Alicante, Spain
Avila, Spain
Baeza, Spain
Barcelona, Spain
Bilbao, Spain
Burgos, Spain
Cadiz, Spain
Cardona, Spain
Castellon, Spain
Cordoba, Spain
Gandia, Spain
Gijon, Spain
Granada, Spain
Ibiza, Spain
Jerez, Spain
Lacoruna, Spain
Las Palmas, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Malaga, Spain
Marbella, Spain
Oviedo, Spain
Palma, Spain
Pamplona, Spain
Playa, Spain
Salamanca, Spain
San Sebastian, Spain
Santander, Spain
Santiago, Spain
Segovia, Spain
Seville, Spain
Sitges, Spain
Toledo, Spain
Torrem, Spain
Valencia, Spain

Spain Tourism:
Madrid Attractions
Barcelona Attractions
Toledo Attractions
Valencia Attractions
Granada Attractions
Seville Attractions
San Sebastian Attractions
Balearic Attractions
Bilbao Attractions

Spain World Heritage Sites
Murcia Major Attractions
Granada Heritage Sites

Cordoba Heritage Sites

Seville Heritage Sites

Úbeda & Baeza Heritage Sites
Aragon Heritage Sites

Galicia Heritage Sites

Cantabria Heritage Sites

Asturias Heritage Sites
Ibiza Heritage Sites

Basque Country Heritage Sites

Canary Islands Heritage Sites

Toledo Heritage Sites
Castilla La Mancha Heritage Sites

Castile & Leon Heritage Sites

Catalonia Heritage Sites

Extremadura Heritage Sites
La Rioja Heritage Sites

Madrid Heritage Sites


Spain Directory & Spain Travel Information

About Spain
Spain Geography

Spain Climate

Spain History
Prehistory and Pre-Roman Peoples

Roman Empire and the

Germanic Kingdoms

Muslim Iberia

Fall of Muslim Rule and Unification
Imperial Spain

Napoleonic Rule and Its Consequences

Spanish-American War
20th Century of Spain

21st Century of Spain

Spain Politics
Spain Constitution

Spain Government

Spain Administrative Divisions

Foreign Relations of Spain

Spain Economy
Spain Demographics

Immigration to Spain

People / Languages of Spain

Spain Religions

Spain Culture
Spain Schools

Literature of Spain

Real Academia Española

Art of Spain

Cinema in Spain
Spain Architecture

Spain Music

Cuisines in Spain

Sports in Spain

Spain Holidays


Spain Vacation Trips

Trip Holidays Switzerland offers travel tips and information for top travel places and best destinations. We feature links, resources and large selection of budget airlines, chartered planes, sea cruises, ferries, travel agencies, land transports and attractions including beaches, medical tourism, retirement homes, historical and pilgrimage tours.


Spain Fall of Muslim Rule and Unification

The Reconquista ("Reconquest") is the centuries-long period of expansion of Spain's Christian kingdoms; Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the battle of Covadonga in 722 and being concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian peninsula. The Christian army's victory over the Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias along the northern coastal mountains. Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees, but they were defeated at the Battle of Poitiers in France. Subsequently, they retreated to more secure positions south of the Pyrenees with a frontier marked by the Ebro and Duero rivers in Spain. As early as 739 Muslim forces were driven from Galicia, which was to host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela. A little later Frankish forces established Christian counties south of the Pyrenees; these areas were to grow into kingdoms, in the north-east and the western part of the Pyrenees. These territories included Navarre, Aragon and Catalonia.

The breakup of Al-Andalus into the competing Taifa kingdoms helped the expanding Christian kingdoms. The capture of Toledo in 1085 was soon followed by the completion of the Christian powers reconquest of Spain's northern half. After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian Spain in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south. Marinid invasions from north Africa in the 13th and 14th centuries failed to re-establish Muslim rule. Also in the 13th century, the kingdom of Aragon, formed by Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia expanded its reach across the Mediterranean to Sicily. Around this time the universities of Palencia (1212/1263) and Salamanca (1218/1254) were established; among the earliest in Europe. The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain.

In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand. In 1478 began the final stage of the conquest of Canary Islands and in 1492, these united kingdoms captured Granada, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia. The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance toward Muslims. The year 1492 also marked the arrival in the New World of Christopher Columbus, during a voyage funded by Isabella. That same year, Spain's Jews were ordered to convert to Catholicism or face expulsion from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition. Not long after, Muslims were also expelled under the same conditions.

As Renaissance New Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand centralized royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España - whose root is the ancient name Hispania - began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms. With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as the first world power.


Trip Holidays Switzerland also showcase a unique blend of travel and leisure photos and stories, updates, events and announcements about roads, shopping malls, hotels, bed and breakfast, restaurants, groceries and more. Not just a travel guide but one-of-a-kind discovery of people and places.

Spain Travel Destination
Alicante Spain - Avila Spain - Baeza Spain - Barcelona Spain - Bilbao Spain - Burgos Spain - Cadiz Spain - Cardona Spain
Castellon Spain
- Cordoba Spain - Gandia Spain - Gijon Spain - Granada Spain - Ibiza Spain - Jerez Spain
Lacoruna Spain
- Las Palmas Spain - Madrid Spain - Malaga Spain - Marbella Spain - Oviedo Spain - Palma Spain
Pamplona Spain
- Playa Spain - Salamanca Spain - San Sebastian Spain - Santander Spain - Santiago Spain - Segovia Spain
Seville Spain
- Sitges Spain - Toledo Spain - Torrem Spain - Valencia Spain

Spain Travel Informations and Spain Travel Guide
About Spain - Spain Geography - Spain Climate
Spain History - Prehistory and Pre-Roman Peoples - Roman Empire and the - Germanic Kingdoms - Muslim Iberia
Fall of Muslim Rule and Unification - Imperial Spain - Napoleonic Rule and Its Consequences
Spanish-American War - 20th Century of Spain - 21st Century of Spain
Spain Politics - Spain Constitution - Spain Government - Spain Administrative Divisions - Foreign Relations of Spain
Spain Economy - Spain Demographics - Immigration to Spain - People / Languages of Spain - Spain Religions
Spain Culture - Spain Schools - Literature of Spain - Real Academia Española - Art of Spain
Cinema in Spain - Spain Architecture - Spain Music - Cuisines in Spain - Sports in Spain - Spain Holidays

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